cow elk weight

Adult Manchurian wapiti may retain a few orange spots on the back of their summer coats until they are older. 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Bulls between two and four years and over 11 years of age rarely have harems, and spend most of the rut on the periphery of larger harems. Elk consume an average of 9.1 kilograms (20 lb) of various vegetation daily. These deer have had an adverse impact on forest regeneration of some plant species, as they consume more palatable species which are replaced with those that are less favored by the elk. Elk can produce deeper pitched (150 Hz) sounds using the larynx.[34]. [7], Until recently, red deer and elk were considered to be one species, Cervus elaphus. Bulls that enter the rut in poor condition are less likely to keep their harems through to the peak conception period or have the strength to survive the rigors of the oncoming winter. [19], Outside their native habitat, elk and other deer species, especially white-tailed deer, were introduced in areas that previously had few, if any, large native ungulates. [6] The extinct Irish elk (Megaloceros) was not a member of the genus Cervus, but rather the largest member of the wider deer family (Cervidae) known from the fossil record. In Asia, stag and hind, respectively, are sometimes used instead. It is transmitted to humans as undulant fever, producing influenza-like symptoms that may last for years. [47] Particularly fond of aspen sprouts which rise in the spring, elk have had some impact on aspen groves which have been declining in some regions where elk exist. Unlike white-tailed deer and moose, which are primarily browsers, elk are similar to cattle in that they are primarily grazers. Two distinct subspecies found in China and Korea are the Manchurian wapiti (C. canadensis xanthopygus) and the Alashan wapitis (C. canadensis alashanicus). [35] The gestation period is 240 to 262 days and the offspring weigh between 15 and 16 kilograms (33 and 35 lb). [5][8] However, mitochondrial DNA studies, conducted on hundreds of samples in 2004 from red deer and elk subspecies as well as other species of the Cervus deer family, strongly indicate that elk, or wapiti, should be a distinct species, namely Cervus canadensis. During the summer, elk eat almost constantly, consuming between 4 and 7 kilograms (8.8 and 15.4 lb) of vegetation daily. Males also engage in ritualized mating behaviors during the rut, including posturing, antler wrestling (sparring), and bugling, a loud series of vocalizations that establishes dominance over other males and attracts females. Elk are hunted as a game species. Bulls are some 40% larger than cows at maturity, weighing an average of 320 to 331 kg (705 to 730 lb), standing 1.5 m (4.9 ft) at the wither and averaging 2.45 m (8.0 ft) in length[19][20] while large males reach 1.7 m (5.6 ft) tall at wither and 3 m (9.8 ft) in length. [39] In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem which includes Yellowstone National Park, bears are the most significant predators of calves. During the mating period known as the rut, mature bulls compete for the attention of the cow elk and will try to fend off rival bulls from their harem. Though bison are more likely to transmit the disease to other animals, elk inadvertently transmitted brucellosis to horses in Wyoming and cattle in Idaho. [9] These Chinese subspecies are sometimes treated as a distinct species, namely the Central Asian red deer (Cervus wallichi), which also includes the Kashmir stag.[17]. Male elk have large antlers which are shed each year. [40] Although grizzlies have been documented to hunt elk, there are no documented cases when mature healthy bulls are killed by grizzlies; however, they do occasionally kill the bears instead. Even the Siberian elk (Cervus canadensis sibiricus) are more or less identical to the American forms and therefore may belong to this subspecies, too. ", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. [76], Elk hides have been used for thousands of years for tepee covering, blankets, clothing and footwear. [42], As is true for many species of deer, especially those in mountainous regions, elk migrate into areas of higher altitude in the spring, following the retreating snows, and the opposite direction in the fall. The velvet is shed in the summer when the antlers have fully developed. Their range collapsed at the start of the Holocene, due to them being specialized to cold periglacial tundrasteppe habitat, which was largely replaced with closed forest, being outcompeted by red deer in these conditions. 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The Siberian and North American elk carry the largest antlers while the Altai wapiti have the smallest. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Studies are being undertaken by government departments to determine how to halt or eliminate the disease. Of the six subspecies of elk known to have inhabited North America in historical times, four remain, including the Roosevelt's (C. canadensis roosevelti), tule (C. canadensis nannodes), Manitoban (C. canadensis manitobensis) and Rocky Mountain elk (C. canadensis nelsoni). Their meat is leaner and higher in protein than beef or chicken. Manchurian wapiti may retain a few orange spots on the back of their summer coats until they are older. [41], Male elk retain their antlers for more than half the year and are less likely to group with other males when they have antlers. [10] The formation and retention of antlers is testosterone-driven. The primary cause is not known, but it is associated with treponeme bacteria, which are known to cause digital dermatitis in commercial livestock. Throughout their range, they live in forest and in forest edge habitat, similar to other deer species. [33] Unusual for a vocalization produced by a large animal, buglings can reach a frequency of 4000 Hz. After two weeks, calves are able to join the herd, and are fully weaned at two months of age. The elk (Cervus canadensis) or wapiti is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, and one of the largest terrestrial mammals in North America and Northeast Asia. The Alashan wapiti of north central China is the smallest of all subspecies, has the lightest coloration and is the least studied. Elk range in forest and forest-edge habitat, feeding on grasses, plants, leaves, and bark. Key morphological differences that distinguish C. canadensis from C. elaphus are the former's wider rump patch and paler-hued antlers. This animal should not be confused with the still larger moose (Alces alces) of North America, alternatively known as "elk" in British English and related names in other European languages (German Elch, Swedish älg, French élan), in reference to populations in Eurasia. Elk are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases, some of which can be transmitted to livestock. Hunting pressure also impacts migration and movements. Efforts to eliminate infectious diseases from elk populations, largely by vaccination, have had mixed success. [28] If neither bull backs down, they engage in antler wrestling, and bulls sometimes sustain serious injuries. [36] Elk calves are as large as an adult white-tailed deer by the time they are six months old. [1] The habitat of Siberian elk in Asia is similar to that of the Rocky Mountain subspecies in North America. The elk has adapted well in countries where it has been introduced, including Argentina and New Zealand. Some cultures revere the elk as having spiritual significance.

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