what prescriptions did each of the hellenistic philosophies offer for achieving happiness
Encheiridion (Manual). Such cults were dualistic mysteries distinguishing sharply between the body and soul. Hellenistic philosophers, therefore, devoted less attention than had Plato and Aristotle to the speculative construction of an ideal state that would facilitate the achievement of a happy life. A number of the old chthonic (underworld) and agricultural (fertility) gods and the old agricultural mysteries (corporate renewal religions related to fertility concepts) fundamentally altered their character. This course naturally results in a nearly total lack of activity, which Pyrrho took to be equivalent to peace of mind. In the Hellenistic period, Epictetus tersely noted the central features of a life thusly lived according to nature in his beyond doubt, then very little indeed will be known. Thus, Epicureanism was long ago summarized as the view recommending that we "relax, eat, drink, be merry." They emphasized instead the mental peace that comes from accepting whatever happens without complaint or struggle. He interpreted the religious texts allegorically, finding in their structure clues and hints of the deeper philosophical truth. This seems cold and harsh advice indeed, but it works! Rather than the archaic structures of celebration and conformity to place, the new religious mood spoke of escape and liberation from place and of salvation from an evil, imprisoned world. Thus, we'll find notions of this sort to be a popular feature of medieval philosophy. In the centuries that followed, changes in the political and cultural climate of the ancient world tended to discourage many varieties of philosophical thinking. from its central core other forms emanate outward, like the ripples in a pond, losing measures of reality along the way. What prescriptions did each of the Hellenistic philosophies offer for achieving happiness? The Christian church fathers were not far behind. the later Hellenistic period also produced significant movement toward the consolidation of the older Greek philosophical tradition with the middle-eastern religions of Judaism and Christianity. The collective agricultural rite became a mystery, a salvific experience reserved for the elect (such as the Greek mystery religion of Eleusis). if we use the information it provides as the basis for our reasoning about its origins in something more significant. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. A rival school of philosophy in Athens was that of the Stoics. Alexander the Great. In the gnostic mysteries (the esoteric dualistic cults that viewed matter as evil and the spirit as good), this process was carried further through the identification of the experiences of the soul that was to be saved with the vicissitudes of a divine but fallen soul, which had to be redeemed by cultic activity and divine intervention. As originally developed by Zeno of Citium and Chrysippus, But later Roman Stoics like Seneca and It was viewed as being: the result of the conscious or unconscious emanation from the transcendent realm; the result of the fall of a deity from the Beyond; the creation of a hostile, ignorant, or evil deity; or a joke or mistake. The Roman philosopher Lucretius defended a similar set of theses, a systematic description of the natural world comprising many particular material particles, whose mechanical interactions account for everything that happens. The questions that the religions of the Hellenistic period sought to answer may be seen in a fragment from the 2nd-century Anatolian Gnostic teacher Theodotus: “What liberates is the knowledge of who we were [before our earthly existence] and what we have become [on earth]; where we were [the Beyond] and the place to which we have been thrown [the world]; where we are going and from what are we redeemed; what is birth and what is rebirth” (preserved in Clement of Alexandria, Excerpta ex Theodoto, 78.2). If, indeed, we form no attachments and care about nothing, then loss will never disturb the tranquillity and peace of our lives. In general, we might say, such philosophers tried to show how we should live when circumstances beyond our control seem to render pointless everything we try to accomplish. What is the enduring significance of stoicism for the Although it was widely ignored in his own time, the work of Sextus was instrumental in Greco-Roman Age . Epecureanism claimed happiness was achieved through freedom from pain and suffering and also through friends and family. αταραξια [ataraxia]} and freedom from pain. What prescriptions did each of the Hellenistic philosophies offer for achieving happiness? The archaic religions of the Mediterranean world were primarily religions of etiquette. This archaic pattern of affirming and celebrating the order of the cosmos was expressed in the typical creation myth of the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean world, which consisted of a creation by combat between the forces of order and chaos. Thus, in the Letter to Menoeceus, Epicurus held that the proper goal of human life is to achieve mental ease The Hellenistic schools of philosophy, then, exhibit less confidence and propose solutions less radical than their Athenian predecessors had in the golden era. λογος [logos]}, which is the organizing principle that accounts for everything in the cosmos.
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