why do crocodiles eat each others arms
 The earliest stage of crocodilian evolution was the protosuchians, which evolved in the late Triassic and early Jurassic. As a result, the flanks are distensible, which is necessary for breathing and for the expansion of the body that occurs in gravid females. They also have unique cog-teeth-like valves that, when interlocked, direct blood to the left aorta and away from the lungs, and then back around the body.  The scutes contain blood vessels and may act to absorb or radiate heat during thermoregulation. Mud crabs that belong to the genus Scylla makes up the essential part of the diet. In the same year, 50 captive bred crocodiles were released into the wild to help boost the population. , The three primary branches of Crocodilia had diverged by the end of the Mesozoic. Gaping with the mouth can provide cooling by evaporation from the mouth lining. That is not to say that Orinoco crocs rely exclusively on fish.  The temperature at which the eggs incubate determines the sex of the hatchlings. The wild population is believed to exist only in small fragmented ponds. Species with sharp teeth and long slender snouts, like the Indian gharial and Australian freshwater crocodile, are specialised for feeding on fish, insects, and crustaceans, while extremely broad-snouted species with blunt teeth, like the Chinese alligator and broad-snouted caiman, specialise in eating hard-shelled molluscs. They are also thought to feed on carrion. Within a month of mating, the female crocodilian begins to make a nest.  By these means, the temperature range of crocodilians is usually maintained between 25 and 35 °C (77 and 95 °F), and mainly stays in the range 30 to 33 °C (86 to 91 °F).  They may also dig for bottom-dwelling invertebrates, and the smooth-fronted caiman will even hunt on land. Early in the 1970s, more than 2 million wild crocodilian skins of a variety of species had been traded, driving down the majority of crocodilian populations, in some cases almost to extinction. Crocodiles wait for the right moment to strike on a prey and thus they are often called sit-and-wait predators. As a result, the crocodile can breathe even if its mouth is open underwater. Soc. The crocodile... A view from above shows the different snouts of an alligator and a crocodile. Living diapsids include modern reptiles and birds. Crocodile - Crocodile - Form and function: The crocodilian form is adapted to an amphibious way of life.  When submerging, the nostrils of a crocodilian shut tight. In contrast to the back and belly, the sides of the body have mostly small knobby scales. , Crocodilians are sometimes used as mascots for sports teams.  It was followed by crocodilians such as the Planocraniidae, the so-called 'hoofed crocodiles', in the Palaeogene.  A legend from East Timor tells how a boy rescues a gigantic crocodile that becomes stranded. Nevertheless, the gharial's extremely slender jaws are relatively weak and built more for quick jaw closure.  Research also suggests that alkaline ions released into the blood from the calcium and magnesium in these dermal bones act as a buffer during prolonged submersion when increasing levels of carbon dioxide would otherwise cause acidosis. Fish makes up much of the Orinoco crocodile’s eat. They can also spin and twist by moving their lungs laterally. , Though typically slow on land, crocodilians can produce brief bursts of speed, and some can run at 12 to 14 km/h (7.5 to 8.7 mph) for short distances. The cloacal urine is much more concentrated, white, and opaque, with the nitrogenous waste being mostly excreted as insoluble uric acid.  Small animals can be killed by whiplash as the predator shakes its head. The eusuchians continued this process with the interior nostrils now opening through an aperture in the pterygoid bones. In 1972, the species was declared a Class I endangered species by the Chinese government and received the maximum amount of legal protection. In the wild, they feast on fish, birds, frogs and crustaceans. The mesosuchians saw a fusion of the palatine bones to form a secondary bony palate and a great extension of the nasal passages to near the pterygoid bones. Simply by looking at the large size of crocodile you cannot imagine what do crocodiles eat in the wild.  During the Benin Empire, crocodiles were considered the "policemen of the waters" and symbolised the power of the king or oba to punish wrongdoers. Their skin is thick and covered in non-overlapping scales. Large to medium-sized mammals make up much of the adult crocodile’s diet and this includes hog deer, long-tailed macaques, greater mouse-deer, crab-eating macaques, proboscis monkey, wallabies, flying foxes, badgers, fishing cats, gibbons, civets, rodents, jackals, otters, porcupines, mongoose, and hares.  Typically they are creatures of the tropics; the main exceptions are the American and Chinese alligators, whose ranges consist of the south-eastern United States and the Yangtze River, respectively. , Being highly efficient predators, crocodilians tend to be top of the food chain in their watery environments.  Similar stories exist in Native American legends, and in the African American folktale of an alligator and Br'er Rabbit. They can be recognised by the broad snout, in which the fourth tooth of the lower jaw cannot be seen when the mouth is closed. Crocodilian eggs are protected by hard shells made of calcium carbonate. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. Next, the hind limbs swing forward as the spine flexes dorso-ventrally, and this sequence of movements is repeated. Related Questions. produced a phylogeny formed from DNA sequencing to give a maximum likelihood cladogram of the relationships among living crocodilians (excluding the yacare caiman for which no DNA evidence was available). Individuals of some species may share basking sites at certain times of the day. At night it remains submerged, and its temperature slowly falls.  A study examining alligator farms in the United States showed that they have generated significant conservation gains, and poaching of wild alligators has greatly diminished. Newly hatched crocodilians gather together and stay close to their mother. It also makes various grunts and hisses. Australian freshwater crocodiles take ten years to reach maturity at 1.4 m (4 ft 7 in).  In some small species such as the freshwater crocodile, a running gait can progress to a bounding gallop. As such, the alternate spellings Crocodilia and Crocodylia are still used interchangeably in the neontological literature. The snout of the American croc is not so narrow in comparison to other fish-eating crocodiles such as gharials.  In traditional Chinese medicine, alligator meat is said to cure the common cold and prevent cancer, while various internal organs are believed to have medicinal properties. This reflects the Egyptians' view of the crocodile both as a terrifying predator and an important part of the Nile ecosystem. The upper surfaces of the back and tail are covered with large, rectangular horny plates arranged regularly in longitudinal and transverse rows. , In the Amazon basin, when caimans became scarce as a result of overhunting in the mid-20th century, the number of local fish, such as the important arapaima (Arapaima gigas), also decreased. , Crocodilians have some of the strongest bite forces in the animal kingdom. They swim well and can move on land in a "high walk" and a "low walk", while smaller species are even capable of galloping. Support from local people is crucial for the species' survival. , The ears are adapted for hearing both in air and underwater, and the eardrums are protected by flaps that can be opened or closed by muscles. Crocodiles may have either broad or slender snouts, while alligators and caimans have mostly broad ones. 29(2):275–514.  Crocodilians possess a tapetum lucidum which enhances vision in low light. , The eyes, ears and nostrils of crocodilians are at the top of the head. The earliest known mention of the story that crocodiles weep for their victims was in the 9th century; it was later spread by Sir John Mandeville in 1400 and then by William Shakespeare in the late 16th century and early 17th century.  The crocodilian penis is permanently erect and relies on cloacal muscles for eversion and elastic ligaments and a tendon for recoil. Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) contains the poem How Doth the Little Crocodile, a parody of a moralising poem by Isaac Watts, Against Idleness and Mischief. They also eat birds, mammals, and small reptiles out of their opportunistic nature. Do crocodiles eat each other? One day, a "rainbow bird" stole fire-sticks from the crocodile and gave it to man.  During cooperative feeding, some individuals may hold on to the prey, while others perform the roll.
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